Public attitudes toward agricultural biotechnology are socially constructed (Lichtenstein and Slovic, 2006). Spider silk is the strongest fiber known to man, stronger than Kevlar (used to make bullet-proof vests), with a higher tensile strength than steel. When injected into the body, these antigens trigger an immune respons… Thus, farmers were enabled to grow high-yield crops in order to satisfy the increasing food requirements of a growing population and prevented starvation in many parts of the world. It is no small irony, then, that controversy surrounds agriculture and the intellectual property (IP) laws that were enacted for the very purpose of fostering invention (Bent, 2006). Most researchers are still relatively unfamiliar with how to find, understand, and utilize IP information, including published patents and patent applications. Indeed, some of the least controversial aspects of agricultural biotechnology are potentially the most powerful and the most beneficial for the poor. The agricultural biotechnology sector (Ag Biotech) shares a common scientific foundation with the therapeutic biotechnology sector, including similar characteristics of a lengthy time to market for emerging products. Clearly, biotechnology is more than genetic engineering. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our. Not only will humankind benefit from these innovative technologies, but the efforts that spawned them are contributing to the existing body of scientific knowledge and the development of global biotechnology industries (Singh et al., 2009). Modern genetics assists in improving the growth, health, vigor, and other qualities of agriculturally important mammals, poultry and fish. Some other GM crops being studied are decaffeinated tea and coffee and nicotine-free tobacco. This portrayal tends to divide the debate in actors with good motives (those who are concerned about the potential health and environmental risks of GMOs) and actors with bad motives (those who seek to make profits from the commercialization of GM crops). People would just discard such arguments seeking to link them to industrial interests (the “bad” profit-seeking motive). Transgenic, or genetically modified (GM) crops, have been commercially available in the United States since 1996. Finally as mentioned above, if developed nations cannot correct their problems of over centralization and a lack of freedom for innovators to operate, the developing nations can become the creative leaders in agricultural biotechnology. The possible drawbacks include all the controversial arguments against GMOs. Hammock, ... T.N. Genetic engineering and enzyme optimization techniques are being used to develop better quality feedstocks for more efficient conversion and higher BTU outputs of the resulting fuel products. The complex IP environment surrounding agricultural biotechnology research and development, exemplified by even a relatively simple FTO opinion, has spawned some new strategies and organizations committed to lower the IP barriers to new crop developments and provide more open access to patented technologies. Key determinants of acceptance and willingness-to-pay can be categorized into five groups: sociodemographic variables, knowledge, attitudinal and behavioral determinants, and information. According to the Mutant Variety Database, over 17 000 varieties of crops have been developed using mutagenesis breeding. This includes plant breeding to raise and stabilize yields; to improve resistance to pests, diseases and abiotic stresses such as drought and cold; and to enhance the nutritional content of foods. In this narrative, GMOs are framed as a corporate technology that allows companies to make large profits while endangering the environment and people’s health. Agricultural biotechnology is a fast-expanding industry in many countries of the world that will continue to offer remarkable economic, environmental, and social opportunities in the years ahead. Capitalism alone is likely to be slow to generate products that will aid developing counties at an affordable price, but the rate of development could be increased somewhat if there were good patent protection in these countries.6 One hopes that activists can move beyond blocking questionable technologies toward a positive program where technologies which improve the environment and encourage social justice are advocated. Examples of the use of this technology are GM papaya which are resistant to Papaya ring spot virus. For example, informed decisions regarding dissemination of new knowledge via open publication or protecting it with a patent are clearly important and FTO can be improved if public sector institutions systematically consider how, when, and if to use the patent system to support broad innovation (Boettiger and Chi-Ham, 2007). A well-known example of a transgenic plant is Golden Rice, which expresses β-carotene and was created philanthropically with the intent of alleviating vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in developing countries. Although multinational companies are unlikely to design products specifically for developing nations, some of the major products developed will be admirably suited for use in developing economies. Table 1: An agricultural technology timeline, Source & ©: FAO "The State of Food and Agriculture 2003-2004" Chapter 2: What is agricultural biotechnology?  Section Understanding, characterizing and managing genetic resources, Source & ©: FAO "The State of Food and Agriculture 2003-2004" Chapter 2: What is agricultural biotechnology?  Section Understanding, characterizing and managing genetic resources, Box 3. For years, the microbe Bacillus thuringiensis, which produces a protein toxic to insects, in particular, the European corn borer, was used for dusting crops. Through the ages, innovations in agriculture have greatly benefited humanity. Is the genetic makeup of all living organisms the heritage of all humanity, or it can be appropriated by corporations? Public attitudes toward agricultural biotechnology may therefore change once the economic and also to some extent environmental damage of banning a platform technology such as biotechnology in agriculture becomes more obvious. India, as a party to the Convention on Biological Diversity and Cartagena Protocol, has acquired the responsibility of strengthening her biosafety structure very sincerely. Up- or down-regulation of transcription is generally the method used to alter drought tolerance in plants.